The effectiveness of brief, intense exercise in holistically improving health, longevity and performance is well documented, though not widely practiced. 
Turns back the clock
     The authors have identified ten "biomarkers," the key physiological factors associated with prolonged youth  and vitality:
      1. Muscle Mass
      2. Strength
​      3. Basal Metabolic Rate 
​      4. Body Fat Percentage
​      5. Aerobic Capacity 
      6. Blood Pressure
      7. Insulin Sensitivity
      8. Cholesterol/HDL ratio
      9. Bone density
      10. Body Temperature Regulation
You can improve these critical markers, effectively "turning back the clock," if you want to!
Strength training is now the first scientifically proven "anti-aging" medicine for humans. Not only does resistance training make most people feel better and perform physical tasks better, it now appears that resistance training actually rejuvenates muscle tissue in healthy senior citizens.
A recent study, co-led by Buck Institute faculty member Simon Melov, PhD, and Mark Tarnopolsky, MD, PhD, of McMaster University Medical Center in Hamilton, Ontario, involved before and after analysis of gene expression profiles in tissue samples taken from 25 healthy older men and women who underwent six months of twice weekly resistance training... READ MORE

Older adults who met twice-weekly strength training guidelines had lower odds of dying, a new analysis concludes. The study is the first to demonstrate the association in a large, nationally representative sample over an extended time period, particularly in an older population.  READ MORE

People lose 30 percent of their muscle strength between the ages of 50 and 70 years. However, maintaining muscle strength in old age is enormously important in order to maintain mobility and to be able to
lead an independent life and manage everyday tasks independently. 

The researchers examined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004, of 6,451 participants who had prevalent cardiovascular disease. Each subject was categorized into one of four groups:

  • low muscle/low fat mass
  • low muscle/high fat mass
  • high muscle/low fat mass
  • high muscle/high fat mass

Those with high muscle mass and low fat mass had the lowest risk of cardiovascular and total mortality.

The findings also highlight the importance of maintaining muscle mass, rather than focusing on weight loss, in order to prolong life, even in people who have a higher cardiovascular risk. The authors suggest that
clinicians encourage their patients to participate in resistance exercises as a part of healthy lifestyle changes, rather than focusing primarily on, and monitoring, weight loss.
Makes You Stronger

In summary our data suggests that when training to RM significant strength increases are possible from brief (<15 minutes/∼5 exercises per workout), infrequent 1-2×/week, resistance exercise sessions. As previous research has indicated that strength is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality [14], these results are meaningful for reducing this risk in the population examined. READ MORE

This study, reviewed the Position Stand of the American College of Sports Medicine and compared it against the research conducted until that time and concluded that one set of exercise for each body part performed once or twice a week is sufficient to improve muscular strength, hypertrophy, power and endurance.  READ MORE

CONCLUSIONS: These results show strong dose-response relationships between resistance training intensity and strength gains, and between strength gains and functional improvements after resistance training. Low-moderate intensity resistance training of the KE muscles may not be sufficiently robust from a physiologic perspective to achieve optimal improvement of functional performance. Supervised HI, free weight-based training for frail elders appears to be as safe as lower intensity training but is more effective physiologically and functionally. READ MORE

Conclusions: Higher intensity training protocols induce greater gains in strength, anaerobic power, and whole body physical function of older men. Moreover, higher intensity training may maintain the gains for more prolonged periods after training ceases. READ MORE

CONCLUSIONS: A program of once or twice weekly resistance exercise achieves muscle strength gains similar to 3 days per week training in older adults and is associated with improved neuromuscular performance. Such improvement could potentially reduce the risk of falls and fracture in older adults.    READ MORE

Most resistance training studies of older subjects have emphasized low-intensity, short-term training programs that have concentrated on strength measurements. The purpose of this study was, in addition to the determination of strength, to assess intramuscular and transport
factors that may be associated with strength increments.

The results show that skeletal muscle in older, untrained men will respond with significant strength gains accompanied by considerable increases in fiber size and capillary density. Maximal working capacity, VO2max, and serum lipid profiles also benefited from high-intensity resistance training. READ MORE
Makes Your Bones Harder
CONCLUSIONS: Brief supervised High Intensity Progressive Resistance Training with impact loading is a safe and effective exercise therapy for postmenopausal women with low to very low bone mass.   READ MORE
Conclusion: Our combined program of resistance + impact exercise reduced risk factors for fracture among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (BCS) and may be particularly relevant for BCS on aromatase inhibitors (AIs) because of the additional benefit of exercise on muscle mass that could reduce falls.  READ MORE

CONCLUSION: A 6-month resistance training program increases muscle mass and improves bone mineral density of the femoral region in young and healthy older men and women as a group, with a trend for this to be greater in young subjects.   READ MORE
Improves your balance and agility

Conclusions: Results indicate that resistance training by itself improves flexibility in the aged. However, intensities greater than 60% of 1RM are more effective in producing flexibility gains, and strength improvement with resistance training is also intensity-dependent.  READ MORE

Losses in lower extremity muscle strength/power, muscle mass and deficits in static and particularly dynamic balance due to aging are associated with impaired functional performance and an increased fall risk. It has been shown that the combination of balance and strength training (BST) mitigates these age-related deficits. However, it is unresolved whether supervised versus unsupervised BST is equally effective in improving muscle power and balance in older adults. Twelve weeks of BST proved to be safe (no training-related injuries) and feasible (high attendance rates of >90%). Deficits of balance and lower extremity muscle power can be mitigated by BST in healthy older adults. Additionally, supervised as compared to unsupervised BST was more effective. Thus, it is recommended to counteract intrinsic fall
risk factors by applying supervised BST programs for older adults.  READ MORE
Improves your endurance

CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training for 3 months improves both leg strength and walking endurance in healthy, community-dwelling elderly persons. This finding is relevant to older persons at risk for disability, because walking endurance and leg strength are important components of physical functioning. READ MORE

CONCLUSIONS: Higher intensity training protocols induce greater gains in strength, anaerobic power, and whole body physical function of older men. Moreover, higher intensity training may maintain the gains for more prolonged periods after training ceases. READ MORE

CONCULTIONS: The results of chronic physiological adaptations demonstrate that resistance training to momentary muscular failure produces a number of physiological adaptations , which may facilitate the observed improvements in cardiovascular fitness. The adaptations may include an increase in mitochondrial enzymes, mitochondrial proliferation, phenotypic conversion from type IIx towards type IIa muscle fibers , and vascular remodeling (including capillarization). Resistance training to momentary muscular failure causes sufficient acute stimuli to produce chronic physiological adaptations that enhance cardiovascular fitness.  READ MORE
Improves your weight management

Our results suggest that high-intensity interval resistance training increases excess post exercise energy consumption to a significantly greater extent than traditional resistance training. This exercise methodology allows subjects to improve metabolism and, at the same time, muscle mass and strength all of which are promoted as beneficial by many guidelines. In Western society leisure time is lacking and motivation to perform daily exercise is uncommon resulting in low overall levels of daily lifestyle related physical activity. In this situation a short intense training that enables elevation of basal metabolism whilst lowering RR (i.e. increase fat consumption at rest) may be an interesting and attractive alternative to more traditional and
time consuming exercise and could be a useful tool in the physician’s hand.  READ MORE

In conclusion, our investigation found a single-set resistance training bout using the ACSM guidelines that was as effective as a three-set resistance training bout in elevating resting energy expenditure for up to 72 h post resistance training in overweight college males, a group at high risk of developing obesity. The increase in resting energy expenditure by ~ 420 kJ day−1 may eliminate the positive energy balance that has been proposed to be associated with weight gain in 90% of the population. Furthermore, this does not take into consideration the energy expended during the resistance training session itself that may also occur on the same day or in the days after as part of an exercise program. Likewise, the one-set resistance training protocol may provide an attractive alternative to either aerobic exercise or multiple-set resistance training programs for weight management in busy young adults, due to the minimal time commitment.  READ MORE

...increase REE and adiponectin in an intensity-dependent manner for as long as 48 and 24 h, respectively, in overweight elderly individuals. It appears that resistance exercise may represent an effective approach
for weight management and metabolic control in overweight elderly individuals.  READ MORE
Improves your blood sugar management

CONCLUSIONS—Progressive resistance training as an adjunct to standard of care is feasible and effective in improving glycemic control and some of the abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome among high-risk older adults with type 2 diabetes.  READ MORE

CONCLUSIONS—In older adults with type 2 diabetes, home-based progressive resistance training was effective for maintaining the gymnasium-based improvements in muscle strength and LBM but not glycemic control. Reductions in adherence and exercise training volume and intensity seem to impede the effectiveness of home-based training for maintaining improved glycemic control.   READ MORE

CONCLUSIONS—High-intensity progressive resistance training, in combination with moderate weight loss, was effective in improving glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Additional benefits of improved muscular strength and LBM identify high-intensity resistance training as a feasible and effective component in the management program for older patients with type 2 diabetes. READ MORE

CONCLUSIONS—Two sessions per week of PRT, without a concomitant weight loss diet, significantly improves insulin sensitivity and fasting glycemia and decreases abdominal fat in older men with type 2 diabetes.

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity or moderate intensity exercise training. Several recent studies comparing high intensity exercise training with low intensity  and moderate intensity exercise training reported that high inentsity exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to low and moderate intensity exercise training. ...HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.  READ MORE

Results indicate that resistance exercise is an effective treatment for acutely enhancing insulin sensitivity and regulating blood glucose in individuals with impaired fasting glucose.  READ MORE

High-volume endurance exercise (END) improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but many individuals cite 'lack of time' as a barrier to regular participation. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a
time-efficient method to induce physiological adaptations similar to END, but little is known regarding the effect of HIT in T2D. HIT reduced hyperglycaemia measured as proportion of time spent above 10 mmol/l (HIT: 4.5 ± 4.4 vs. CTL: 15.2 ± 12.3%, p = 0.04). Postprandial hyperglycaemia, measured as the sum of post-meal areas under the glucose curve, was also lower after HIT vs. CTL (728 ± 331 vs. 1142 ± 556
mmol/l·9 h, p = 0.01). These findings highlight the potential for HIT to improve glycaemic control in T2D.
Reduces your stress
A growing body of literature has identified anxiolytic effects of resistance exercise in human populations after both single-bout sessions and long-term training. This research has shown that resistance training at a low-to-moderate intensity (<70% 1 repetition maximum) produces the most reliable and robust decreases in anxiety. Importantly, anxiolytic effects have been observed across a diverse range of populations and dependent measures. These findings provide support for the use of resistance exercise in the clinical management of anxiety.  READ MORE

This review summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials to examine whether strength training influences anxiety, chronic pain, cognition, depression, fatigue symptoms, self-esteem, and sleep. The weight of the available evidence supported the conclusion that strength training is associated with reductions in anxiety symptoms among healthy adults (5 trials); reductions in pain intensity among patients with low back pain (5 trials), osteoarthritis (8 trials), and fibromyalgia (4 trials); improvements in cognition among older adults (7 trials); improvements in sleep quality among depressed older adults (2 trials); reductions in symptoms of depression among patients with diagnosed depression (4 trials) and fibromyalgia (2 trials); reductions in fatigue symptoms (10 trials); and improvements in self-esteem (6 trials).   READ MORE

Although exercise has been shown to relieve depression, little is known about its mechanism or dose-response characteristics. We hypothesized that high intensity progressive resistance training (PRT) would be more
effective than either low intensity PRT or standard care by a general practitioner (GP) in depressed elderly persons, and that high intensity PRT would provide superior benefits in quality of life, sleep quality, and self-efficacy.

CONCLUSIONS: High intensity PRT is more effective than is low intensity PRT or GP care for the treatment of older depressed patients.  READ MORE